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Important Details About (Almost) Every Medical Specialty

Discussion in 'Medical Students Cafe' started by Ghada Ali youssef, Jan 20, 2017.

  1. Ghada Ali youssef

    Ghada Ali youssef Golden Member

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    At the time of this writing, there are 26 medical and surgical specialities to choose from when applying for residency in the Match. These include: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, Family Medicine, Emergency Medicine, Neurology, Child Neurology, Psychiatry, Dermatology, Radiology, Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Genetics, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Pathology, General Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery, Otolaryngology (ENT), Ophthalmology, Plastic Surgery, Neurosurgery, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Urology, Anesthesiology, and Preventative Medicine.

    Many of these fields contain subspecialties which can be pursued during fellowship training after residency. This means that there truly is something for everyone!
    Let’s begin by looking into each specialty:

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    Internal Medicine
    Internists take care of adults from the age of 18 to the very elderly. The field focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the heart, lungs, GI tract, blood, joints, as well as cancers, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, local and systemic infections, autoimmune diseases, end-of-life care, and care for the elderly. Preventive medicine is also an important part of the field. Internal Medicine contains many subspecialties with fellowship training after residency, such that internal medicine can range from the very broad (primary care) to the very subspecialized (e.g. Transplant Medicine).

    • Length of Residency Training : 3 years
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    381 programs
    7874 applicants for 5407 positions
    95% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 226
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 237
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.3
    • Mean number of publications: 3.2
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 15.5%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 5.7%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships for subspecialty training (1-3 years): Cardiology, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Hematology/Oncology, Infectious Disease, Endocrinology, Rheumatology, Transplant Medicine, Palliative Care, Sleep Medicine, and Geriatrics
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, hospitalist medicine, consult services, nursing homes
    • Average Salary of an Internist
    • The average salary: ranges widely depending on specialty and type of practice with Cardiology and Gastroenterology being the most lucrative and Primary care being the least well compensated; the average is listed as $184,200 to $231,691.2
    Pediatrics
    Pediatricians take care of children from birth until the age of 18 or 21, depending on the pediatrician. They deal with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the heart, lungs, GI tract, blood, joints, as well as cancers, growth conditions, hormonal imbalance, local and systemic infections, autoimmune diseases. Preventative medicine is also an important part of the field. Pediatrics contains many subspecialties with fellowship training after residency, such that pediatrics can range from the very broad (primary care) to the very subspecialized (e.g. Neonatal Medicine).

    • Length of Residency Training : 3 years (includes required rotations in general pediatrics, normal newborn care, and time in subspecialty areas)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    198 programs
    2988 applicants for 2601 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 221
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 234
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2
    • Mean number of publications: 2.4
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 11.6%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 4.2%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships for subspecialty training (1-3 years): Adolescent Medicine, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Cardiology, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Hematology/Oncology, Infectious Disease, Endocrinology, Rheumatology, Emergency Medicine, Transplant Medicine and Palliative Care.
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, hospitalist medicine, consult services
    • Average Salary of a Pediatrician
    • Average Salary: ranges widely depending on specialty and type of practice with Cardiology and Gastroenterology being the most lucrative and Primary care being the least well compensated; the average is listed as $160,111 to $228,750. Pediatricians typically make less in the same subspecialties as their Internal Medicine counterparts.

    Internal Medicine/Pediatrics
    Meds/Peds physicians are trained in both internal medicine and pediatrics, such that they can diagnose and treat diseases of both children and adults.
    • Length of Residency Training : 4 years (2 in pediatrics, 2 in internal medicine)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    80 programs
    434 applicants for 365 positions
    88% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 230
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 242
    • Mean number of research experiences: 1.9
    • Mean number of publications: 2.3
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 24.2%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 3.3%
    • Fellowships
    Unique: Med-Peds Generalist
    Combined: Allergy and Immunology, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Hematology/Oncology, Infectious Disease, Nephrology, Neurology, Pulmonary/Critical Care, Rheumatology, Palliative Care
    Special: Adolescent Medicine, Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS), HIV Medicine, Medical Genetics, Medical Informatics, Outcomes Research, Quality Improvement, Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program, Sports Medicine

    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, hospital inpatient service (ward attending), hospital consult service
    • Average Salary of Med/Peds
    Average salary: varies widely depending on given specialty

    Family Medicine
    Family Medicine physicians take care of patients of all ages, both children and adults, from birth to the very elderly. They also provide annual gynecological care for women. Many family medicine physicians take care of an entire family. There is a special focus on preventative medicine. They treat the same diseases as Internists and Pediatricians but typically in more of a community setting and often in rural and underserved areas.
    • Length of Residency Training : 3 years
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    452 programs
    3551 applicants for 2708 positions
    97% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 213
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 225
    • Mean number of research experiences: 1.4
    • Mean number of publications: 1.6
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 6.5%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 0.9%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Adolescent Medicine, Geriatric Medicine, Hospice and Palliative Care, Sleep Medicine, and Sports Medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice
    • Average Salary of Family Practitioner
    • Average Salary: $175,000 to $220,196.2
    Emergency Medicine
    Emergency Medicine physicians specialize in the acute stabilization and disposition of patients who present to the emergency department. They see patients of all ages with any ailment or injury, with varying levels of acuity, ranging from a small laceration to a critically ill trauma patient who was involved in a motor vehicle collision. EM physicians must be proficient in a variety of procedural skills, including the placement of central lines and arterial lines, intubation, lumbar puncture, thoracentesis and paracentesis. Once finished with their residency training, emergency medicine physicians can choose to practice in emergency departments with various levels of trauma: level 1 trauma centers, level 2, as well as urgent care centers.
    • Length of Residency Training : 3-4 years (4 for academic centers)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    158 programs
    2025 applicants for 1626 positions
    90% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 223
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 234
    • Mean number of research experiences: 1.8
    • Mean number of publications: 2.1
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 9.1%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 1.7%
    • Fellowships
    • Available Fellowships (1 year): Medical Toxicology, Pediatric emergency medicine, Sports Medicine, Ultrasound, Undersea and hyperbaric medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Hospital emergency department (level 1 or 2), urgent care center
    • Average Salary of Emergency Medicine Physician
    • Average Salary: $239,000 to $316,296
    Neurology
    Neurologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. After interviewing and examining a patient, they must determine not only the diagnosis but also localize the problem within the nervous system. The neurological examination is one of the most involved examinations in all of medicine in that it has many parts and provides a great wealth of diagnostic information. Neurologists deal with diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) including ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, infection (encephalitis and meningitis), multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases, dementia, movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease), neuromuscular diseases such as ALS (Lou-Gehrig’s disease), autoimmune diseases, headaches, sleep disorders, and malignancies of the brain and spinal cord. They also deal with diseases of the peripheral nervous system (nerve roots, nerves, neuromuscular junction and muscles) including radiculopathies, neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome), myasthenia gravis and myopathies. They are also essential in providing prognostic information for patients who have suffered anoxic brain injury as a result of cardiac arrest.
    Neurologists in the hospital setting are often called upon for the formal determination of brain death. Neurologists typically see adult patients, from the ages of 18 to the very elderly, while pediatric patients are typically seen by Child/Pediatric Neurologists. Neurologists receive some training in psychiatry during residency, as they must have some knowledge of psychiatric disease. Neurologists and psychiatrists take a common board exam to become board-certified in their respective specialities, offered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.

    • Length of Residency Training : 4 years (includes 1 year of internal medicine)
    • 2011 NRMP Mach Data
    128 programs
    755 applicants for 605 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 225
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 233
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.9
    • Mean number of publications: 4.2
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 11.9%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 11.9%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1-2 years): Behavioral Neurology, Vascular (Stroke Neurology), Neurocritical Care, Interventional Neurology, Multiple sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Movement Disorders, Epilepsy and Electrophysiology, Neuromuscular, Headache, Sleep Medicine, Neuro-Infectious Disease, Neuro-oncology, Neuro-ophthalmology, Neuro-otology, Neuro-Hospitalist, Neuro-Rehab, and Sports Medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, hospital inpatient service (ward or ICU attending), interventional suite, hospital consult service
    • Average Salary of a Neurologist
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice
    Child Neurology
    Child/Pediatric Neurologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems in children from birth until the age of 18 (or 21 depending on the physician). They deal with diseases of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) including ischemic stroke, hemorrhage, epilepsy, infection (encephalitis and meningitis), neurodevelopmental disorders (autism and autism spectrum diseases), behavioral disorders (ADD and ADHD), multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases, neuromuscular diseases (e.g. muscular dystrophy) autoimmune diseases, headaches, sleep disorders, and malignancies of the brain and spinal cord. They also deal with diseases of the peripheral nervous system (nerve roots, nerves, neuromuscular junction and muscles) including radiculopathies, neuropathies (carpal tunnel syndrome), myasthenia gravis and myopathies.
    • Length of residency training : 5 years (2 in pediatrics and 3 in neurology)
    • 2011 Match Data: No data available
    • Fellowships
    • Available Fellowships (1 year): Vascular (Stroke) Neurology, Epilepsy and Electrophysiology, Neurodevelopmental disorders (Autism and Autism spectrum disorders),
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, hospital inpatient service (ward attending), consult services in a hospital
    • Average Salary of a Child Neurologist: No data available
    Psychiatry
    Psychiatrists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. They deal with psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance abuse. They treat diseases such as schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and borderline personality disorder, among others. They are required to commit patients to psychiatric hospitals involuntarily when they are a threat to themselves or others. Along this line, they may be called upon to provide a determination of a patient’s capacity to determine his/her own decisions, both in the hospital and in court. Psychiatrists are trained in both psychotherapy and psychopharmacological treatment, as well as the electroconvulsive therapy for severe depression and suicidality. There is a growing trend in which psychiatrists provide pharmaceutical treatment, and clinical psychologists provide counseling and therapy. Psychiatrists receive some training in Neurology during residency, as they must have some knowledge of neurological disease. Psychiatrists and neurologists take a common board exam to become board-certified in their respective specialities, offered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology.
    • Length of residency training: 4 years (includes 3 months of neurology, 3 months of internal medicine)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    182 programs
    1597 applicants for 1097 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors: 214
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 225
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.1
    • Mean number of publications: 3
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 4.6%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 5.1%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): addiction psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, general hospital inpatient service (locked psychiatric ward attending), state psychiatric hospital
    • Average Salary of a Psychiatrist
    • Average Salary: $173,800 to $248,198
    Dermatology
    Dermatologists are specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skin. They deal with skin cancers, moles, acne, allergic rashes, autoimmune conditions with skin manifestations (e.g. Lupus), and the manifestations of malignancy from other organs in the skin. They perform surgical biopsies and resections of skin growths, for medical and/or cosmetic purposes. They are also trained in the pathologic diagnosis of skin specimens, aka dermatopathology. Dermatologists also see some patients for purely cosmetic intervention for piercing and for the treatment of skin changes related to aging, scarring, and hair loss. During residency, dermatologists are also trained in Mohs surgery, microscopic surgery aimed at providing complete margin resection of skin cancers.
    • Length of residency training: 4 years (includes 1 year of internal medicine)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    114 programs
    519 applicants for 372 positions
    79% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 244
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 253
    • Mean number of research experiences: 3.7
    • Mean number of publications: 7.5
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 50.8%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 9.1%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Dermatopathology, Pediatric dermatology, Procedural dermatology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice, Cosmetic centers
    • Average Salary of a Dermatologist
    • Average Salary: $313,100 to $480,088
    Radiology (diagnostic)
    Radiologists are specialized in the interpretation of imaging modalities used to diagnose and monitor disease. They are trained in interpreting x-rays, ultrasound, nuclear scans (PET), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Some radiologists pursue Interventional radiology in which they specialize in using a combination and imaging and catheter-guided wires to recanalize occluded arteries in the treatment of stroke and vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Given the advancement in computers in the last decade, radiologists are now able to view studies remotely from thousands of miles away from an imaging center and bill for the interpretation of such imaging.
    • Length of residency: 5 years (1 year of internal medicine, 4 years of diagnostic radiology)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    188 programs
    1255 applicants for 1124 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 240
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 245
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.8
    • Mean number of publications: 3.9
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 26.4%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 4.3%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships: Neuroradiology, Nuclear radiology, Pediatric radiology, Vascular and interventional radiology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient imaging center, hospital-based reading room, hospital interventional suite, remotely/from home
    • Average Salary
    • Average Salary: $377,300 to $478,000
    Radiation Oncology
    Radiation oncologists are specialized in the treatment of malignant tumors via radiation therapy.
    • Length of training: 5 years
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    87 programs
    211 applicants for 171 positions
    85% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 240
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 244
    • Mean number of research experiences: 4.2
    • Mean number of publications: 8.3
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 31.2%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 22.1%
    • Available Fellowships: None currently
    • Work Environment : Practice types/location: Hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: $242,900 to $518,991
    Nuclear Medicine
    Nuclear medicine physicians are specialized in the evaluation of the body using radiopharmacologic tracers so as to diagnosis disease. Tracers are used to study the body in conjunction with imaging modalities including molecular imaging such as PET/CT scans. Nuclear medicine technology in used to diagnose coronary artery disease, cancer, and the efficacy of cancer treatment. Some radioactive tracers are used in the treatment of certain cancers and severe pain.
    • Length of residency training: 3 years
    • 2011 Match Data : 55 programs
    • Fellowships
    • Available Fellowships: None currently
    • Work Environment : Practice types/location: Hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: No Data
    Medical Genetics
    Medical geneticists are specialized in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of genetic diseases, using biochemical, cytogenetic and radiological testing. They can provide counseling to families prior to pregnancy, and they can diagnose genetic disease both in the prenatal and postnatal periods. They also coordinate screening programs for chromosomal abnormalities, inborn errors of metabolism, and neural tube defects.
    • Length of training: 2 or 4 years (2 year program completed after 2 years of residency in another specialty, 4 year program includes 2 years of pre-genetics education)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data : 50 programs
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Medical biochemical genetics, Molecular genetic pathology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: No Data
    *For the complete list : see First comment
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  2. Ghada Ali youssef

    Ghada Ali youssef Golden Member

    Joined:
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    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Rehab Medicine/Physiatry)
    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation physicians, also known as physiatrists, are specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of physical disabilities acquired from traumatic injuries (e.g. motor vehicle collisions), sports-related injuries, overuse injuries (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome), neurological disease (e.g. stroke, traumatic brain injuries or spinal cord injuries). Physiatrists provide medical treatment and rehabilitation for patients so as to optimize their recovery and return to their prior baseline functioning. They work closely with physical and occupational therapists. Many physiatrists work at Rehabilitation hospitals, centers of care devoted to rehabilitation after stroke, myocardial infarction, and other surgeries. They receive specific training in the care of patients in chronic vegetative and minimally conscious states.

    • Length of training: 4 years (including 1 year of internal medicine)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    77 programs
    484 applicants for 373 positions
    90% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors :214
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors :224
    • Mean number of research experiences: 1.9
    • Mean number of publications: 2.1
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 3.9%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 1.1%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Neuromuscular medicine, Pain medicine, Pediatric rehabilitation medicine, Spinal cord injury medicine, Sports medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice, rehab hospital, consult service in a hospital
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice
    Pathology
    Pathologists specialize in the diagnosis of diseases via gross and microscopic examination of tissue specimens, bodily fluids and cells, and via laboratory testing. They deal with both living and dead tissue. They are responsible for determining the type of malignancy found in a surgical specimen and often need to make this diagnosis quickly. They are given frozen sections from active operating rooms where surgeons will decide how to proceed with their surgical procedures depending on the information that they receive from the pathologist. Along with diagnosing the type of malignancy, pathologists use microscopic specimens to determine the grade of a tumor, information which will help the oncologist and surgeon determine the patient’s prognosis and viable treatment options. Pathologists also deal with dead tissue in the post-mortem examination of a body when an autopsy is requested; the pathologist will examine gross and microscopic tissue from the body to determine the cause of death. Some pathologists spend their careers as medical examiners and work closely with law enforcement.
    • Length of training: 3-4 years (either anatomic pathology requiring 3 years, clinical pathology requiring 3 years, or a combined anatomic-clinical pathology residency requiring 4 years of training)
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    146 programs
    658 applicants for 518 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors :226
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 233
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.5
    • Mean number of publications: 4.6
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 10.9%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 17.2%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year except Neuropathology which requires 2 years of additional training): blood banking/transfusion medicine, chemical pathology, cytopathology, dermatopathology, forensic pathology, hematology, medical microbiology, molecular genetic pathology, neuropathology, pediatric pathology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Hospital-based practice, medical examiner at a morgue
    • Average Salary: $239,000 to $331,842
    General Surgery
    General surgeons specialize in the surgical treatment of diseases of the abdomen and GI tract, endocrine systemm, breast, blood vessels, and skin. They deal with hernias, benign and malignant tumors of the breast, gallbladder disease, appendicitis, small and large bowel obstructions, inflammatory conditions of the bowel, pancreatitis, diseased blood vessels, and malignancies of the GI tract. They see a cominbation of healthy patients, critically ill and trauma patients in a variety of settings including the emergency department, outpatient day surgery OR, inpatient wards and intensive care units, and outpatient office practice. They see patients of all ages.
    • Length of residency training: 5 years
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    250 programs
    1756 applicants for 1108 positions
    80% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 227
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 238
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.6
    • Mean number of publications: 3.3
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 13.1%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 2.2%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1-2 years): Hand surgery, Surgical critical care, Vascular surgery, Pediatric surgery
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice, same-day surgical centers
    • Average Salary: $284,642 to $383,333
    Thoracic Surgery
    Thoracic surgeons are specialized in the surgical management of diseases of the thorax, including the heart and its great vessels and valves, pericardium, lungs, pleura, esophagus, chest wall, mediastinum, and diaphragm. They treat congenital and acquired diseases and provide care to critically ill patients in intensive care units. Cardiothoracic surgeons perform coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and cardiac valve replacements as well as other procedures.
    • Length of residency training: 6-8 years
    2011 Match Data
    17 programs

    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships: Congenital cardiac surgery
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Hospital-based practice, Inpatient service (thoracic ward or ICU attending)
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice
    Orthopedic Surgery
    Orthopedic surgeons are specialized in the medical and surgical treatment of injuries, deformities and disease of the musculoskeletal system, including the bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles of the spine, hands, feet, shoulders, elbows, hips, knees and ankles. They treat fractures, ligament tears, congenital deformities, benign and malignant tumors of the bone, and perform hip and knee replacements. Orthopedic surgeons treat for sports-related injuries as well as traumatic injuries related to motor vehicle collisions and other accidents. They see patients of all ages.
    • Length of residency training: 5 years (1 year of general surgery and 4 years of orthopedic surgery)
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    153 programs
    974 applicants for 670 positions
    77% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 240
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 245
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.9
    • Mean number of publications: 4.5
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 27.1%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 2.4%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Joint replacements, Spine surgery, Pediatric orthopedic surgery, Trauma surgery, Hand surgery, Foot/ankle surgery, Sports medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: $397,879 to $600,000
    Otolaryngology (ENT)
    Otolaryngologists specialize in the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, throat, pharynx, and larynx. They deal with vocal problems, hearing problems, vestibular problems, allergic conditions, congenital and acquired deformities, injuries of the ears, nose, sinuses, pharynx, and face and jaw, and malignancies of these structures.
    • Length of residency training: 5 years (1 year of general surgery, emergency, critical care and anesthesia training, 4 years of otolaryngology)
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    105 programs
    364 applicants for 283 positions
    86% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 243
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 250
    • Mean number of research experiences: 3.5
    • Mean number of publications: 5.1
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 41.6%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 3.7%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships: Neurotology, Pediatric otolaryngology, Head and Neck reconstructive surgery
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice
    Academics: $245,000 for assistant professors, $333,000 for associate and full professors

    Ophthalmology
    Ophthalmologists are specialized in the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the eye. They are trained to treat primary ocular disorders as well as secondary manifestations of systemic disease in the eye. They also provide corrective vision lenses in the form of glasses and contact lenses. Some ophthalmologists are specially trained in laser surgery to correct myopia. Ophthalmologists see patients of all ages.
    • Length of residency training: 4 years
    2011 San Francisco Match Data
    117 programs
    >85% match rate for US seniors in 2011

    • Average USMLE Step 1 score for successful applicants: 230-240
    • No. of programs the average applicant applies to: 30-40 –> 7-8 interviews
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships: Oculoplastics, Retina, Neuro-ophthalmology, Cornea, Pediatric Ophthalmology, Glaucoma, Ocular Pathology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice, Laser eye center
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice

    Plastic Surgery
    Plastic surgeons are specialized in the reconstruction and repair of physical deformities of the face and head, breasts, trunk, and extremities. Their surgical procedures have two purposes: the treatment of disease and injury, and cosmetic enhancement. Plastic surgeons perform surgical cosmetic reconstruction, enhancement, and reduction of facial features, breasts, and features of the trunk.
    • Length of residency training: 5-7 years (involving a combination of general and plastic surgery)
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    45 programs
    197 applicants for 108 positions
    44% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 249
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 249
    • Mean number of research experiences: 3.8
    • Mean number of publications: 8.1
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 45.9%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 6.8%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Hand surgery, Head and Neck surgery, Breast surgery
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation and surgical privileges, hospital-based practice, Cosmetic centers
    • Average Salary: $275,000 to $499,656

    Neurosurgery
    Neurosurgeons are specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries and diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems which require surgical intervention. They perform open surgical procedures as well as stereotactic radiosurgery to treat diseases of the skull, meninges, brain, spinal cord, vertebral column, and their associated vascular supply. They place deep brain stimulators for treatment of Parkinson’s disease and certain psychiatric conditions; they also place ventriculoperitoneal shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus. They also treat injuries and diseases of the peripheral nervous system which require surgery, including compressive neuropathies (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome). Neurosurgeons share the care of spinal injuries with orthopedic surgeons, and they share the care of stenosed (narrowed) extracranial arteries with vascular surgeons. Neurosurgeons often provide care for patients in Neurological intensive care units and must be proficient in performing emergent procedures for acutely declining patients, including external ventricular drains at the bedside and hemicraniectomies in the OR.
    • Length of training: 5-7 years (includes 1 year of general surgery and neurosurgical training in cerebrovascular disease, pediatric neurosurgery, spine surgery, trauma and tumors).
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    101 programs
    268 applicants for 195 positions
    86% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors :239
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 241
    • Mean number of research experiences: 3.4
    • Mean number of publications: 7.4
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 25.3%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 10.3%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships: Endovascular surgical neuroradiology, Pediatric Neurosurgery
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: $287,000–$637,000
    Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB\GYN)
    Obstetrician/gynecologists specialize in women’s health. They provide care for pregnant women from the time of conception through the labor and delivery process and the postpartum period. They provide prenatal care and fetal monitoring and sometimes work in conjunction with midwives. They are also experts in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive tract. They treat women from the ages of 18 through the very elderly, though some young women are seen prior to age 18. Current guidelines recommend that a woman be seen by a gynecologist by the age of 21 or within 3 years of the start of sexual intercourse. Some OB/GYNs are specially trained in high-risk pregnancies and treat diseases of pregnancy (preeclampsia and eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, etc.) as well as diseases of the fetus (intrauterine growth retardation, etc.). OB/GYNs deal with diseases of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, endometrium, cervix, vagina and external genitalia, including ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancy, endometriosis, sexually-transmitted diseases, and malignancies of the ovary, endometrium, cervix and vagina. OB/GYNs provide assistance to mothers in the labor and delivery of their babies. They perform obstetrical surgical procedures, including ceserean sections, cerclage, removal of ectopic pregnancies, and gynecological procedures including open and laporoscopic hysterectomies and oophorectomies, removal of endometriosis tissue, endometrial and cervical biopsies and LEEP procedures, removal of malignant tissue for diagnosis and treatment.
    • Length of residency training: 4 years
    2011 NRMP Match Data
    242 programs
    1509 applicants for 1205 positions
    94% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 220
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 233
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.2
    • Mean number of publications: 2.4
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 10.8%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 1.3%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1-3 years): Maternal-fetal medicine, Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, and Gynecologic Oncology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges, hospital-based practice
    • Average Salary: $251,500 to $326,924

    Urology
    Urologists are specialized in the diagnosis and medical and surgical treatment of diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive tract. They deal with incontinence, calculi (stones) of the urinary tract, congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, sexually-transmitted diseases, sexual dysfunction in men, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and malignancies of the urinary tract and male reproductive system.
    • Length of residency training: 6 years
    2011 Match Data
    122 programs

    • Fellowships
    • Available Fellowships: Pediatric urology, Urologic oncology
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Outpatient office practice with hospital affiliation/surgical privileges
    • Average Salary: No data
    Anesthesiology
    Anesthesiologists are specialized in the monitoring and stabilization of patients undergoing surgery as well as the relief of pain resulting from that procedure. They try to optimize a patient’s condition before, during and after surgery, and they are responsible for monitoring patients after surgical procedures in the Post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). They are also often consulted for assistance in airway management and stabilization as well as in a Code Blue when a patient’s respiratory status declines, and intubation is necessary. Anesthesiologists are trained in critical care and rotate through intensive care units as well; some choose to devote their careers to attending in ICU. They are also trained in pain medicine and are consulted for nerve blocks and other procedures to relieve pain.
    • Length of training: 4 years (including 1 year of internal medicine or general surgery)
    • 2011 NRMP Match Data
    131 programs
    1612 applicants for 1404 positions
    96% match rate among US seniors in 2011

    • Average Step 1 score for matched US seniors : 226
    • Average Step 2 score for matched US seniors : 235
    • Mean number of research experiences: 2.2
    • Mean number of publications: 2.5
    • Percentage of matched US seniors in AOA: 8.9%
    • Percentage of matched US seniors with PhD: 3.5%
    • Fellowships
    Available Fellowships (1 year): Critical Care, Pain Medicine
    • Work Environment
    Practice types/location: Operating room and PACU in hospital, Intensive Care Unit, consult service in hospital
    • Average Salary: $331,000 to $423,507
    Preventive Medicine
    Preventive Medicine physicians specialize in protecting the health of the individual and their large community through promoting preventive medicine; their goal is to prevent injury, disease, disability and death. Preventive medicine physicians subspecialize in general preventive medicine, public health, occupational medicine and aerospace medicine.
    • Length of Residency Training
    • Length of residency training: 3 years
    • Fellowships
    • Available Fellowships (1-2 years): Medical toxicology, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine
    • Work Environment
    • Practice type/location: Hospital, corporations, environmental associations (OSHA), Military
    • Average Salary: depends on type of practice
     

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