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Probiotics Salt Hypertension

Discussion in 'Microbiology' started by Valery1957, Jan 24, 2019.

  1. Valery1957

    Valery1957 Famous Member

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    Common salt reduces the number of certain lactic acid bacteria in the gut of mice and humans according to a study published in Nature by Berlin's Max Delbrück Center and Charité. This has an impact on immune cells which are partly responsible for autoimmune diseases and hypertension. Probiotics ameliorate the symptoms of disease in mice.

    We eat salt every day, sometimes more, sometimes less, but often too much. "But so far, nobody had studied how salt affects the bacteria in the gut," says head of the study Professor Dominik Müller of the Berlin Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC) and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), both of which are joint institutions within the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine and the Charité -- Universitätsmedizin Berlin.

    Lactobacilli offset the harmful effects of salt

    Too much salt in food can encourage hypertension and might even have a negative impact on the course of autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). Now Müller and his team have demonstrated that excess salt decimates the lactobacilli in the gut while blood pressure rises and the number of Th17 helper cells is increased. These immune cells are associated with hypertension and autoimmune diseases like MS.

    When the animals were given probiotic lactobacilli in addition to the high-salt diet, however, the frequency of TH17 helper cells decreased once again and blood pressure dropped. The probiotics also alleviated the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a disease model for MS.

    The researchers thus identified the microbiome as an important factor in diseases affected by salt. The lead author and ECRC scientist Dr Nicola Wilck says, "Gut bacteria influence the host organism, and the immune system is also very active in the gut."

    Müller and Wilck worked together with an interdisciplinary research team including Professor Ralf Linker from FAU Nürnberg-Erlangen, scientists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston, USA, from the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, the University of Regensburg and the Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB) in Hasselt, Belgium. The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) also supported the study.

    Pilot study with human test subjects

    Apart from the experiments on mice, the researchers also investigated the bacterial community in the digestive tract of twelve healthy men who were given six extra grams of salt every day for a fortnight. As the test subjects otherwise maintained their usual eating habits, they thus roughly doubled their daily intake of salt. Here, too, the lactobacilli responded sensitively. Most of them were no longer detectable after 14 days of increased salt intake. At the same time, scientists discovered that the probands' blood pressure rose and the number of Th17 helper cells in the blood increased.

    Pathbreaking discoveries for therapy

    The role played by bacteria in the most diverse diseases is becoming an ever more important focus of research. Just how the organism interacts with gut flora is, however, still largely unknown. "Our study goes beyond just describing the changes caused by salt. We want to consider interrelated processes," says Müller. But so far, they have not managed to completely elucidate the precise interactions, he explains. "We can't exclude the possibility that there are other salt-sensitive bacteria that are just as important."

    The new findings have not actually confirmed the therapeutic effect of lactobacilli which are found in fermented food such as sauerkraut, yogurt and cheese. Neuroimmunologist Professor Ralf Linker notes, "Multiple sclerosis may be one of the salt-sensitive diseases which we might be able to treat in the future with individually-tailored probiotics as add-on to standard immune therapies." Lactobacillus probiotics of this kind have therapeutic potential.

    This will soon all be examined at ECRC, says Wilck. "We are planning a blood pressure study with human subjects: double blind with a larger number of participants of both genders and placebo controlled." After that, they can start thinking about the therapeutic application of probiotics.

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  2. Valery1957

    Valery1957 Famous Member

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    Vol 4 February 2019
    Dennis Kunkel Microscropy/Science Photo Library
    For the
    study by Suez and
    For the
    study by Zmora and
    For the
    study by Freedman and
    N Engl J Med
    For the
    study by Schnadower
    and colleagues
    N Engl J Med
    Probiotics: elixir or empty promise?
    The gut microbiota has been implicated in diseases
    ranging from obesity to Parkinson’s disease and de
    pression. Little wonder then that commercial probiotics
    have gained widespread popularity and are now estimated
    to command a US$37 billion market worldwide. But with
    research into the microbiome still in its infancy, increasing
    evidence suggests that both commercial and clinical use
    of probiotics is outpacing the science.
    Evidence from clinical trials is mixed and often of low
    quality, but findings from meta
    analyses suggest that
    probiotics can pro
    vide benefits in the treatment of some
    conditions, such as infectious and antibiotic
    diarrhoea. As such,
    taking probiotics after antibiotic
    treatment is an increasingly common practice. However,
    two studies recently reported in
    question whether
    taking highly concentrated supplements of so
    good bacteria aids the reco
    very of normal gut flora.
    Suez and colleagues investigated the recovery of the
    gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment and found that
    probiotics might perturb rather than aid this process. The
    probiotics rapidly colonised the gut but prevented the
    normal microbiota from repopulating for up to 5 months.
    While likely to be considerably less appealing, the group
    who received autologous faecal microbiota transplanta
    tion recovered their microbiota the quickest, with the
    composition of the microbiota returning to normal within
    days. Furthermore, Zmora and colleagues showed that
    colonisation occurred in highly individualised patterns,
    with some people’s gastrointestinal tracts rejecting
    probiotics and others allowing colonisation by the
    probiotic strain, meaning that many individuals taking
    probiotic supplements are simply wasting their money.
    Two large
    scale clinical trials recently reported in the
    New England Journal of Medicine
    suggest that the situation
    in infectious diarrhoea might also be more complex
    than previously believed. Freedman and colleagues did
    a randomised controlled trial of a probiotic contain
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus
    Lactobacillus helveticus
    in children presenting to the emergency department
    with gastroenteritis. Contrary to expectations, they
    found that the probiotic did not prevent development
    of moderate
    severe gastroenteritis within 14
    after enrolment. In a separate study, Schnadower and
    colleagues found similar results with
    L rhamnosus
    alone. Both trials used probiotics that are available over
    the counter in North America and showed no significant
    difference from placebo in the duration of diarrhoea and
    vomiting, number of unscheduled health
    care visits, or
    of absence from day care. These results cannot be
    generalised to other probiotic strains or preparations, but
    they do show that we have some way to go in elucidat
    ing which probiotics might provide benefits in which
    clinical settings.
    Importantly, patients with gastrointestinal conditions
    are not the only ones taking probiotics. 3·9 million people
    in the USA alone regularly take probiotic supplements,
    with promised benefits ranging from improved digestion
    and immune function to improved mental health and
    prevention of heart disease. However, evidence for
    these benefits is lacking, and because probiotics are
    often sold as supplements, manufacturers in many
    countries are not required to provide evidence of their
    safety and efficacy to regulatory bodies. The ubiquity of
    probiotic products would suggest that, at worst, they are
    harmless. Nevertheless, some safety concerns have been
    raised, including the risk of contamination, possibility
    of fungaemia or bacteraemia (particularly in immune
    compromised, elderly, or critic
    ally ill individuals), small
    intestinal bacterial ov
    ergrowth, and antibiotic resistance.
    Adding to concerns, clinical trials of probiotics have not
    consistently reported safety outcomes.
    While the logic behind probiotics might seem
    sound, it is clear that we have a long way to go before
    understanding the complexity of the microbiota and the
    effects—both good and bad—that probiotics might have.
    All individuals have a unique gut microbiome, and the
    effects of different bacteria on different people are likely to
    be highly variable; as such, probiotic use might even need
    to be personalised for optimal benefits. Commercially
    available products might not contain the correct strains
    or quantities of bacteria to provide benefits, and most
    probiotic supplements contain only single strains, vastly
    oversimplifying the complexity of the microbiota. While
    taking a supplement for improved health is certainly
    an attractive prospect, those looking to aid their gut
    microbiota might be better served by consuming a
    healthy, varied diet. In the meantime, rigorous clinical
    trials are needed to substantiate potential health benefits
    and to confirm whether probiotics are elixirs or just empty

    The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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