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Togo Is The First African Country To Eliminate Sleeping Sickness

Discussion in 'Parasitology' started by Mahmoud Abudeif, Sep 7, 2020.

  1. Mahmoud Abudeif

    Mahmoud Abudeif Golden Member

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    Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République togolaise), a country in West Africa has received validation from the World Health Organization (WHO) for having eliminated human African trypanosomiasis or “sleeping sickness” as a public health problem, becoming the first country in Africa to reach this milestone. It gets its nickname ‘sleeping sickness’ because symptoms can include a disturbed sleep pattern.

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    What is African sleeping sickness?

    Sleeping sickness is caused by parasites that are transmitted by infected tsetse flies and is only found in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. If left untreated sleeping sickness is almost always fatal. In 1995, about 300,000 cases were estimated to have gone undetected, with 60 million people estimated to be at risk of infection. In 2019, fewer than 1,000 cases were found.

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    Illustration of the life cycle of the trypanosome parasite that causes African sleeping sickness.

    What are the two forms of sleeping sickness?

    There are two forms of sleeping sickness. The first, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is found in 24 countries in west and central Africa and accounts for more than 98% of cases. The second form, due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is found in 13 countries in eastern and southern Africa and represents the rest of cases. WHO and partners are targeting the elimination as a public health problem of the gambiense form of the disease from all endemic countries by 2030. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana have started the validation process with the support of WHO.

    How did Togo eliminate African sleeping sickness?

    Togo has not reported any cases in the past 10 years. Togo’s achievement comes after more than two decades of sustained political commitment, surveillance and screening of cases. Beginning in 2000, the country’s public health officials implemented control measures. In 2011, the country established surveillance sites at hospitals in the cities of Mango and Tchamba, which cover the main areas at risk of the disease. Public health officials have since maintained heightened disease surveillance in endemic and at-risk areas. Neighboring countries are not at the same phase and so surveillance must continue to avoid a resurgence of this disease.

    Togo first applied for certification of elimination of sleeping sickness in 2018 and a team of WHO experts studied the data, made recommendations and requested a revision by the country before giving their approval. A WHO-led global collaboration supported these efforts by facilitating the donation of medicines and resources from pharmaceutical companies, which helped strengthen local capacity and ensure the sustained availability of tools required to control the disease. Wiping out the gambiense form of sleeping sickness will require maintaining the commitment of endemic countries and of donors, as well as integrating control and surveillance activities into the regular health systems.

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