I've recently been studying the phenomenon of chronic bladder conditions and what may be causing them. I've recently come across something interesting regarding biofilm communities and how they may cause chronic bladder pain. I've provided an excerpt from my latest reading on the topic. "Biofilms are type of defense system that bacteria use to defend against medical treatments such as antibiotics. Generally when bacteria and other pathogens are free floating within the body they are susceptible to antibiotic treatments. However certain forms of bacteria, parasites and viruses form communities that protect themselves with a biofilm which is a kind of bio-glue forcefield. These types of biofilm communities can form in the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, respiratory system and sex organs. The biofilm makes these types of pathogens extremely hard to kill and can lead to chronic symptoms without any relief from traditional medical treatments. Biofilms have been associated with multiple chronic conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, inflammatory bowel disease, prostatitis, arthritis and other conditions. These biofilms may be constantly causing inflammation and wreaking havoc on the body all the while evading detection and common treatments. Treating an infection with biofilms can be a problem because you may not even be able to detect their existence. Antibiotic treatments may work for a little while but may only kill off a portion of the infection resulting in a return of symptoms later on. Some biofilm infections may even go into a dormant state and reactivate later making them hard to identify and treat. Some treatments that have worked for some people include long term antibiotic use although this can be extremely damaging on your overall health. Other treatments include naturopathic remedies and alternative techniques some of which are found in this book in later sections." Source: Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome by Thomas B. Smith Let me know what you think.