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Everything About 3D Bioprinting

Discussion in 'Biomedical Engineering' started by Egyptian Doctor, Oct 1, 2019.

  1. Egyptian Doctor

    Egyptian Doctor Moderator Verified Doctor

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    3D bioprinting is the process that utilises biomaterials like cells and growth factors to generate tissue- like structure. 3D bioprinting is widely used in the field of medicine and bioengineering to produce those tissue-like structures by using a biomaterial called Bioink. The bioink creates the structure in layers. This technology has recently improved and developed to produce cartilages that has been used in reconstruction and regeneration.

    Like 3D printing, 3D bioprinting operates in layer to layer manner by using living cells instead of thermoplastic. Consequently, sterile conditions of printing should be maintained in order to optimise cell viability and efficient printing.

    The process of bioprinting includes three steps; pre-bioprinting, bioprinting, and post-bioprinting. As a starting point, it is essential to design the digital model that the printer will print by using computed tomography (CT) and MRI technologies. This is the preparation step which represents the pre-bioprinting. The bioprinting takes place when the bioink is added to printer cartridge and sedimentation starts according to the digital model. The final step is the stimulation of the printed body chemically and mechanically in order to obtain a stable structure. This final step is called post-bioprinting.

    Bioprinting Mechanism

    The typical mechanism of 3D bioprinting includes 3D imaging by using the CT and MRI techniques to get the accurate and precise tissue dimensions that can perfectly match with the tissue with simple or without adjustment by the surgeon. Secondly, the 3D modelling using the AutoCAD software to provide blueprint with layer by layer detailed orders. At this stage, little adjustment can be done to avoid defects. The following step is the preparation of the Bioink using a mixture of living cells, silk, gelatin, collagen, hyaluronan, compatible base and nanocellulose. The nanocellulose provides the scaffolding and nutrients to the cells. After the preparation bioink, printing takes place by depositing the bioink layer by layer through nozzles in the form of very viscus fluid. The final step is solidification.


    Importance of Bioprinting

    3D bioprinting is of huge importance as it provides tissue like structure that can mimic the human tissue and organs. Thus, it helps in:

    1. eradicate utilising animals for clinical tests.

    2. Replace tissues from humans.

    3. Generate organs, so there will be no need to find donors.


    Bioprinting Applications

    · 3D printing involves in pharmaceuticals by providing tissues for tests and determining the side effects and the recommended dose. In addition to, its economic cost.

    · Due to organs failure, 3D printing offers printed organs. Printed organs are the fast and most efficient solution for issues related to organs failure.

    · 3D printed skin can be commercially used in cosmetics and plastic surgeries. Also, some printed tissues are currently under trials for their therapeutic potential.

    · Regeneration of bone tissue.

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